Good Fruit Grower

May 15

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ROOTSTOCK – VARIETIES – POLLINATION Quality from the Start APPLES Aztec Fuji® (DT2 variety) Blondee® Brookfield® Gala Buckeye® Gala Cameo® brand Granny Smith Honeycrisp Joburn Braeburn™ JonaStar® Jonagold Kumeu Crimson® LindaMac® It® Red Delicious POLLENIZERS Indian Summer Manchurian CHERRIES Attika® Benton™ Bing Redcort® Ruby Jon® Ruby Mac™ Mariri Red™ Braeburn Morning Mist™ Early Fuji What makes a CHERRY BIG? Smoothee® Golden Spartan Morren's® Jonagored Supra™ Mt. Blanc Ultima™ Gala Zestar!® W Mt. Evereste EbonyPearl™ BlackPearl™ Kootenay™ BurgundyPearl™ Lapins Chelan™ PEARS Bartlett Pearleaf Snowdrift Early Robin® Rainier RadiancePearl™ Hudson Regina Sam Selah™ Columbia Red Anjou™ Forelle Concorde™ Comice PEACHES Allstar Autumnstar® Blazingstar Golden Russet Bosc® Blushingstar Glowingstar Brightstar™ Redhaven Coral Star Redstar Earlystar™ Elberta Red Clapp's Favorite Red Sensation Bartlett Seckel Risingstar Starfire Flamin' Fury® Series PF-19-007 PF-7 PF-24-007 PF-17 PF-35-007 PF-25 PF Lucky 13 Varieties listed may not reflect current inventory. REPRESENTATIVES Leonard Aubert Jim Adams Hood River, Oregon Washington State (541) 308-6008 (509) 670-7879 Larry Traubel Rick Turton Cedaredge, Colorado Kelowna, B.C. (970) 856-3424 (250) 860-3805 Rey Allred Payson, Utah Montmorency D'Anjou Pinedale Ruby™ Rainier Skeena™ Cell growth is regulated genetically, Sweetheart Tieton® Van White Gold but it can be influenced by crop load. by Melissa Hansen hat determines the ultimate size of a cherry? Is it the number of cells packed inside the fruit or the size of the cells that determines whether a cherry grows big or small? And are there differences in the cell numbers or sizes between fruit from high or low crop loads? Dr. Dave Gibeaut, Oregon State University scientist stationed at OSU's research center in Hood River, is working to gain insight into the growth and development of the fruit. Equipped with an electron microscope that greatly magnifies slices of cherry tissue, Gibeaut has been counting and sizing fruit cells of Chelan, Bing, and Sweet- heart to learn more about the timing of cell division and growth of cherry cells. "We know there are millions of cells in fruit and that ultimate fruit size is dependent on the number of cells and the size of those cells," he said during a sweet cherry research symposium held in early February at The Dalles, Oregon. "Cell growth is regulated genetically, but it can be influenced by environment, such as crop load." Very little is known about individual cherry fruit growth and the role that the number, size, and position of cells play in the final fruit size, he said, adding that little is known about fruit size differences between cultivars and crop loads. Number, size, position In comparing fruit growth in trees with high or low crop loads, Gibeaut found that average fruit size in the high crop load was about 15 percent smaller than the low, although some large fruit were present. Also, size was more variable in the high crop load. Gibeaut tagged fruit from high and low crop loads and examined fruit tissue slices under an electron microscope, counting cell numbers and measuring cell sizes at different growth stages. He counted all cells on a line from the pit to skin, starting at prebloom and ending when fruit was harvested. Gibeaut found that cell divisions were completed early, within the first two weeks of growth. By the pit-hardening stage, he found no more gains in the numbers of cells. Additionally, he found no apparent difference in the number of cells between fruit from low and high crop loads. He did observe that the size of cells continued to grow throughout the season until maturity, as one might expect, in fruit from both low and high crop loads. For cell position, he noticed that cell shape varies depending on where (801) 465-2321 Larry Lutz Nova Scotia Ephrata, Washington | WILLOW DRIVE NURSERY, INC. 1-888-54-TREES 32 MAY 15, 2012 GOOD FRUIT GROWER the cell is located. "Cells are not all uniform in size. Some are big and round, and some are small," said Gibeaut. Cells located in the inner mesocarp were elongated at maturity, while cells in the outer mesocarp were round at maturity. He saw no differences in cell position between low and high crop loads. (902) 680-5027 Cell distribution With no differences found between total cell number, size, and posi- tion, Gibeaut then looked at cell size distribution or the proportion of large and small cells between the high and low crop loads. "At bloom time, the low crop load fruit had a greater number of small cells compared to the high crop load," he said. By midgrowth stage and harvest, the small cells in the low crop load had grown into large cells, and there was a greater number of large cells in comparison to the cells of the high crop load fruit. "That's what gives the larger fruit its size—a greater proportion of large cells, not more total cells," he said.

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