Good Fruit Grower

July 2016

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Page 18 of 39 Good Fruit Grower JULY 2016 19 cultivars develop at different rates, some varieties might not require such intense disease control as others, said Tobin Peever, associate professor of plant pathology at WSU's Pullman and Mount Vernon campuses. "The timing of infection is related to bud break, or when vegetative and floral shoots appear, and this varies significantly by cultivar and location," Peever said. "Because there are large differences in when they first break their buds, growers are going to be able to time their sprays accordingly in a customized way." Once the factors tied to spore release are confirmed, Harteveld aims to build a calculator that growers could use to determine when they can expect spores to be released in their area. In the meantime, she's been producing weekly mummy berry updates for four cultivars widely planted in two counties in western Washington, which are posted on WSU's website at Spotting 'shrooms Scouting for the apothecia that emerge under blueberry plants could provide growers time-sensitive information about how best to manage the fungus. However, the mushrooms are small and blend in easily with the ground, making them difficult to find. Enter the 3-D printed model of a mushroom. Jay Pscheidt, professor and Extension plant pathology specialist at Oregon State University, is working to develop an actual-size and color model of the mushroom to help growers identify it in the field. At only about 1/4-inch wide and a shade of brown that matches the soil, the mushrooms are difficult to spot for the untrained eye, Pscheidt said. The mummified berries fall off the bush the previous year, often staying in place and emerging as mushrooms in the spring. If there's a raised berm or hill, they may roll a bit, or they could be covered with leaf material or debris, but the mushrooms work their way out without too much trouble, he said. "The goal is to educate growers on what it looks like, what to look for, and to get them a little more keyed into what's going on so they can tighten up their control tactics," he said. Pscheidt worked with OSU's Department of Archaeology to quickly scan into the computer real mushrooms from different positions before they began to dehydrate and lose color. From those scans, a model of the mushroom was born and printed on a 3-D printer. Pscheidt handed out the first samples to field representatives and county agents for evaluation. Though the color washed out when it got wet and the printed material wasn't as strong as he would like, Pscheidt said the model shows promise. He's looking into a different service that could print them on stronger, more durable materials for long-term use. "We track when these mushrooms come out and how long they stay out. In some years, it's as short as eight days, and in other years, it's as long as four weeks," he said. "It's variable over the years, and that's what makes it very hard to get after." Ultimately, if the 3-D model proves successful, Pscheidt said he sees potential for the technology to be applied in other areas, namely, identifying brown marmorated stink bug. "BMSB — there is an identification that might lend itself to 3-D printing," he said. • courtesy Jay Pscheidt The mushroom that releases the spores that infect blueberries with mummy berry disease is seen at center. A 3-D printed version of the mushroom, created by Jay Pscheidt of Oregon State University, is on the right. The 3-D version with wear and tear is seen on the left. Pscheidt is working to develop a sturdier version. LICENSED NURSERIES Cameron Nursery, LLC P.O. Box 300 Eltopia, WA 99330 509-266-4669 Helios Nursery 18936 Hwy 28 West Quincy, WA 98848 509-787-7777 Brandt's Fruit Trees, LLC 1420 N. 16TH Ave Yakima, WA 98902 509-248-4315 One year propagation contracts available upon request. Contact Adams County Nursery for details. PREMIER™ HONEYCRISP PREMIER™ HONEYCRISP DAS-10 CLTV. PP#24,833 DAS-10 CLTV. PP#24,833 SCHEDULE BUDDING NOW FOR SPRING 2018 AND SPRING 2019 An early maturing Honeycrisp strain originating from a complete tree sport in Adams County, Pennsylvania. Observed over six fruiting seasons, Premier™ Honeycrisp matures 21 days before the original Honeycrisp. This cultivar maintains the same fruit qualities that have made Honeycrisp a top choice in consumer preference. Original vs. Premier™ MASTER LICENSE HOLDER Adams County Nursery, Inc. P.O. Box 108, Aspers, PA 17304 717-677-8105

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