September 2012

SportsTurf provides current, practical and technical content on issues relevant to sports turf managers, including facilities managers. Most readers are athletic field managers from the professional level through parks and recreation, universities.

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FieldScience | ByK.L. Bailey and S. Falk >> A BROADCAST APPLICATION of granules containing Phoma macrostoma on research demon- stration plots in Saskatoon. fall, but it works best when the mean day time air temperature is hovering above 20°C (15-30°C range) and the soil is relatively moist. The product does not need to be "wa- tered-in" but some precipitation or irrigation (up to 1-3 inches) within 24-72 hours after application would be beneficial particularly if the soil is not friable or moist. Continuing research has expanded our Phoma macrostoma: update on the new turfgrass bioherbicide F Agri-Food Canada and The Scotts Company to see if a bioherbicide could be developed to control broadleaved weeds in turfgrass. In 2009, the summer issue of SportsTurf Man- ager reported on its discovery as a potential bioherbicide, and some of the research demonstrating its efficacy and crop safety. Last June (2011), the Pest Management OR SEVERAL YEARS, the fungus Phoma macrostoma has undergone ex- tensive evaluation by Agriculture & lion, scentless chamomile, English daisy, white clover, black medic, Canada thistle, chickweed, broadleaf plantain, and ragweed. The bioherbicide may be used safely on a va- riety of turf types such as Kentucky blue- grass, bent grass, perennial or annual ryegrasses, fescues, bromegrasses, timothy, and Bermuda grass. Regulatory Agency approved a conditional registration for Phoma macrostoma to be used domestically and commercially for control and/or suppression of weeds such as dande- knowledge of how the bioherbicide will per- form in the field. Studies have shown that extreme moisture events around application will reduce the level of weed control attained, especially on sandy soils. The bioherbicide may be applied at the same time as commer- cial granular fertilizers which may result in a 10-15% enhancement in weed control. Currently, Phoma macrostoma is under- going scale-up development to be able to efficiently produce commercial quantities, thus a commercial launch is still a few years away. ■ Canada, Saskatoon, SK. S. Falk is with The Scotts Company, Marysville, OH. ADDITIONAL READING Zhou, L., Bailey, K.L., and Derby, J. 2004. The fungus is formulated into granules which may be applied to either newly-seeded or well-established lawns from a ready-to-use applicator for spot treatments or by broad- casting the granules as either pre-emergent or post-emergent applications. The product may be applied anytime from spring through Figure 2. GRANULES of Phoma macrostoma were applied at the 1X rate with or without commercial fertilizer granules at Marysville, Ohio. The use of fertiliz- ers with the bioherbicide improved weed control later in the season. (Dif- ferent lower case letter show signifi- cant difference among treatments using an LSD test at P= 0.05.) K.L. Bailey is with Agriculture & Agri-Food Plant colonization and environmental fate of the biocontrol fungus, Phoma macrostoma. Biological Control 20: 634-644. and Taylor, W. 2010. Efficacy of Phoma macros- toma a bioherbicide for control of dandelion fol- lowing simulated rainfall conditions. The Americas Journal of Plant Science and Biotech- nology 4 (Special Issue 2): 35-42. J. 2011. The effects of Phoma macrostoma on non- target plant and target weeds species. Biological Control 58 (3): 379-386. Bailey, K.L., Pitt, W.M., Falk, S., and Derby, search on microbial bioherbicides into commer- cial products – A Phoma story. Pest Technology 5 (Special Issue 1): 73-79. Bailey, K.L. and Falk, S. 2011. Turning re- Summer 2009 issue of Sports Turf Manager may be accessed online at www.sportsturfmanager. com/Publications/SportsTurfManager/Archive. Editor's Note: The referenced article in the 8 SportsTurf | September 2012 Bailey, K.L., Pitt, W.M., Derby, J., Walter, S.,

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