December 2013

SportsTurf provides current, practical and technical content on issues relevant to sports turf managers, including facilities managers. Most readers are athletic field managers from the professional level through parks and recreation, universities.

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Page 43 of 47

Marketplace importance is the D1 protein because it exhibits the highest turnover rate of all the thylakoid proteins, and is highly vulnerable to singlet oxygen, a free radical. ANTIOXIDANTS The antioxidants a-tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids (Bcarotene), vitamin B6 and mannitol in some biostimulants play a vital role in scavenging free radicals and helping protect chloroplasts, thylakoid membranes inside the chloroplasts, photosystem I and photosystem II. In terms of its antioxidant properties, carotenoids can protect photosystem I and photosystem II in one of four ways: by reacting with lipid peroxidation products to terminate chain reactions; by scavenging singlet oxygen and dissipating the energy as heat; by reacting with triplet or excited chlorophyll molecules to prevent formation of singlet oxygen; or by dissipation of excess excitation energy through the xanthophyll cycle. Xanthophylls function as accessory pigments for harvesting light at wavelengths that chlorophyll can't and transfer the light energy to chlorophyll. But, they also absorb excess light energy and dissipate it to avoid damage in the xanthophyll cycle. 44 SportsTurf | December 2013 A-TOCOPHEROL (VITAMIN E) A-tocopherol (vitamin E) is considered a major antioxidant in chloroplasts in at least two different but related roles. It protects photosystem II from photoinhibition and thylakoid membranes from photooxidative damage. The antioxidant properties of vitamin E are the result of its ability to quench singlet oxygen and peroxides. ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C) It's generally believed maintaining a high ratio of ascorbic acid is essential for the scavenging of free radicals and is needed in high concentrations in the chloroplasts to be effective in defending the turfgrass against oxidative stress. Although ascorbic acid can directly scavenge the free radicals superoxide and singlet oxygen, the main benefit ascorbic acid plays in the prevention of free radicals is that it's an excellent scavenger of the hydroxyl radical. The hydroxyl radical is dangerous to turfgrass because it can inhibit carbon dioxide assimilation by inhibiting several Calvin cycle enzymes. VITAMIN B6 Apart from its function as a cofactor, vitamin B6 is also thought to act as a protective agent against reactive oxygen species, U.S. Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation (Required by 39 U.S.C. 3685) 1. Title of publication: SportsTurf 2. Publication No. 0000292 3. Filing Date: September 29, 2013 4. Issue Frequency: Monthly 5. No. of Issues Published Annually: 12 6. Annual Subscription Price: Free to Qualified Subscribers 7. Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: 1030 W. Higgins Road, Suite 230, Park Ridge, IL 60068-5761 Contact person: Joanne Juda, 630-543-0552 8. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Offices of Publisher: M2MEDIA360, 1030 W. Higgins Road, Suite 230, Park Ridge, IL 60068-5761 9. Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher and Editor: Group Publisher: Charlie Forman, SR. Vice President, Specialty Information Media, 1030 W. Higgins Road, Suite 230, Park Ridge, IL 60068-5761 John Kmitta, Associate Pulblisher, Specialty Information Media, 1030 W. Higgins Road, Suite 230, Park Ridge, IL 60068-5761 Editor: Eric Schroder, Specialty Information Media, 1030 W. Higgins Road, Suite 230, Park Ridge, IL 60068-5761 10. Owner: Specialty Information Media, 777 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way, Suite 313, Palm Springs, CA 92262-6799 11. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None 12. Has Not Changed During Preceding 12 Months 13. Publication Name: SportsTurf 14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: September 2013 15. Extent and Nature of Circulation: a. Total No. of Copies (net press run) 16,331, 14,379 b. Paid Circulation (By Mail and outside the Mail) (1.) Mailer Outside-County Paid Subscriptions Stated on PS Form 3541 (includes paid distribution above nominal rate, advertiser's proof copies, and exchange copies) 16,018, 13,819 (2.) Mailed In-County Paid Subscription Stated on PS Form 3541 (include paid distribution above nominal rate, advertiser's proof copies, and exchange copies) -, - (3.) Paid Distribution Outside the Mails including sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Paid Distribution Outside USPS® -, - (4.) Paid Distributed by Other Classes of Mail Through the USPS (e.g. First-Class Mail®) -, - c. Total Paid Distribution (Sum of 15b (1), (2), (3), and (4)) 16,018, 13,819 d. Free or Nominal Rate Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail) -, - (1.) Free or Nominal Rate Outside-County Copies included on PS Form 3541 92, 92 (2.) Free or Nominal Rate In-County Copies Included on PS Form 3541 -, - (3.) Free or Nominal Rate Copies Mailed at Other Classes Through the USPS (e.g. First-Class Mail) -, - (4.) Free or Nominal Rate Distribution Outside the Mail (Carriers or other means) 58, 300 e. Total Free or Nominal Rate Distribution (Sum of 15d (1), (2), (3), and (4)) 150, 392 f. Total Distribution (Sum of 15c and 15e) 16,168, 14,211 g. Copies Not Distributed 163, 168 h. Total (Sum of 15f and g) 16,331, 14,379 i. Percent Paid (15c divided by 15f times 100) 99.07%, 97.24% 16. Total circulation includes eletronic copies. Report circulationon PS Form 3526-X worksheet. 17. Publication of Statement of Ownership If publication is a general publication, publication of this statement is required. Will be printed in November 2013 issue of this publication. 18. Signature and Title of Editor, Publisher, Business Manager, or Owner Joanne Juda-Prainito, Senior Market Development, 09.29.13 a. Requested and Paid Electronic Copies 6,032, 8,231b. Total Requested and Paid Print Copies (Line 15C) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies 22,050, 22,050 c. Total Requested Copy Distribution (Line 15F) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies 22,050, 22,050 d. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation (Both Print & Electronic Copies) 99.07%, 97.24% Certify that 50% of all my distributed copies (Electronic & Print) are legitimate requests.

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