Good Fruit Grower

February 1

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PHOTOS COURTESY OF STEVE VAN NOCKER as cold temperature and how it is that cloning allows transmission of "adult" features, such as flowering. "The public perception is that flavonoids are highly beneficial to human health." As a hobby, he makes juice from red apples and ferments it into hard cider. The astringent qualities of red apples are more appreciated in juice and cider than they are in fresh apples, he said, and the juice is very attractive. • Plan. Protect. Profit. —Steve Van Nocker color in almost all the trees could be traced back to one central Asian ancestor, Malus pumila var. niedzwetzkyana. However, an apple named Pink Pearl, which is yellow-skinned but with red pigmentation mixed with white inside, has distinctly different genes from the others. The genetics of redness are not simple, however. Additional genes are involved, and trees can have one or two copies of each. Apples can be thoroughly red throughout, as in Otterson and many crab apples, or mildly tinged with red tints or streaks, and they can be deeper red near the skin or near the core and whiter elsewhere. Redness in most varieties was associated with an allele of the MdMYB10 gene, named MdMYB10-R6, discovered by scientists in New Zealand in a cultivar called Redflesh. Many times, redness occurs in the skin but not the flesh. In some cultivars, the genes don't seem to function. While the allele R6 is thought to be the original ancient central Asian mutation that gives redness to most apples, the Pink Pearl apple contains R1 only but is strongly colored internally. Foliage In the study, the researchers cut apples, and, if redness was found, they described the pigmentation intensity and pattern in their paper. They also examined all accessions that showed red-tinged or purplish foliage. They concluded that this genetic diversity should be exploited to make informed crosses generating new cultivars with superior qualities for commercial nutraceutical production. Van Nocker is not a plant breeder himself. His major interest is in basic genetics. He's studying how plants flower in response to environmental factors such TOPGUARD Fungicide Specialty Crops ® Only the best for the best. TOPGUARD Fungicide Specialty Crops protects against powdery mildew and rusts be er than any fungicide in its class. Its powerful systemic ac vity rapidly protects sprayed fruit and foliage, including new growth, providing maximum protec on. For apples, TOPGUARD Specialty Crops tank-mixed with KOVERALL® Fungicide provides enhanced control of scab. For cherry leaf spot control in cherries, mix TOPGUARD Specialty Crops with a protectant. TOPGUARD Specialty Crops is an essen al component of an apple or cherry fungicide program that maximizes fruit quality and tree health. Contact your local crop advisor or dealer or visit Always read and follow label direc ons. TOPGUARD and KOVERALL are registered trademarks of Cheminova, Inc. GOOD FRUIT GROWER FEBRUARY 1, 2014 31

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