Good Fruit Grower

February 15

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14 FEBRUARY 15, 2016 Good Fruit Grower T runk diseases infect a wide array of crops worldwide, including apples, cherries, blueberries and apricots, as well as grapes. In Washington, they are a growing concern for grape growers as more acres are planted in wine grapes and as the trunks on the region's once- nascent grapevines age. That's because older grapevines are more susceptible. In addition, a trunk disease can remain latent for as long as a decade, and symptoms can take one to three years to develop once it's active. For growers, that means the proportion of affected vines to healthy vines could reach as high as 20 percent before a problem is detected. Knowing what pathogens are already prevalent in the region — and how to prevent them — will be crucial for growers as their industry and grapevines mature. Washington survey Fungal pathogens infect vines through wounds, such as those caused by pruning, and can cause wood canker symptoms years later. The fungi infect the cordons, spurs and trunk, resulting in stunted shoots, shoot dieback and dead spurs — and cumulative yield losses. Five wood canker diseases cause the most prob- lems in North American vineyards: Eutypa dieback, Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca (also known as black measles), Phomopsis dieback and young vine decline complex. Leslie Holland, a former Washington State University graduate student and current doctoral candidate at the University of California, Davis, conducted a grapevine survey to determine the prevalence of trunk diseases in Washington and what fungi are commonly associated with those diseases. Holland gathered wood samples from symptomatic vines of multiple grape varieties and isolated diseased tissue for analysis in the summer of 2014. She focused on seven vineyards in the Yakima Valley and Horse Heaven Hills appellations, with a total of 1,495 vines surveyed across more than 3,800 acres. Holland found that two species of Eutypa accounted for 73 percent of the canker fungi: Eutypa laevata and Trunk diseases in Washington As Northwest vineyards age, trunk diseases become more of a concern. by Shannon Dininny Grape Diseases • Hydro-cool directly in totes • Reduce fruit bruising • Durable and lightweight • Impervious to moisture • Chemical resistant • Twin-wall polypropylene keeps produce fresher • Easy to clean • Reusable • Made in the USA Twin-Wall Harvesting Totes Pick, process, hydro-cool, transport, and display—all in the same tote. Farm Wholesale Harvesting Totes eliminate the need to transfer your fruit from container to container. Less handling means less bruising. Available in several sizes or customize a tote for your application. Call today for special pre-order booking 1-877-476-5399 Farm Wholesale AG good fruit ad 2016 bw_Layout 1 1/20/2016 2:57 PM Page 1

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