Good Fruit Grower

July 2016

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Page 26 of 39 Good Fruit Grower JULY 2016 27 detailed picture, said Kathleen Glass, distinguished scientist and associate director of the Food Research Institute at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The process of whole genome sequencing involves breaking the DNA into snippets, simultaneously deciphering the string of nucleotides within each snippet, and then putting the information from all of the snippets in the right order to generate the entire DNA sequence end to end. "Whole genome sequencing is very precise, which makes it far less likely that we would misidentify what the original source of a bacteria is than if we used one of the older methods," Glass said. Although whole genome sequencing has been around for at least a decade, it has only become a tool for pathogen tracking within the past year, she said. "The reason it's being used so much now is because the technology has gotten to be considerably more cost-effective. To do a sequence 10 years ago, it would have cost $50,000, but now it's $1,000 or less." Often the cost today may fall below $600, noted Trevor Suslow, extension research specialist in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of California. He added that investigative analyses done by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and state labs also include other techniques that don't require full genome sequencing and are even less expensive. Whole genome sequencing is just one part of the arsenal used to identify the source of a pathogen. Investigators still rely on good, old-fashioned detective work and careful epidemiology to narrow the field of suspect foods and possible infection sites and, once that's done, bring in whole genome sequencing to seal the case, Glass said. That's exactly what happened with the 2015 Blue Bell ice cream listeriosis outbreak, she noted. Investigators questioned patients and their families, looked for commonalities, and ice cream came to the top of the list. "The only way they definitively tracked it down, though, was through whole genome sequencing: When they went back to the plants, they found Listeria, and matched it (to the patient samples). There was no doubt that was the source. Whole genome sequencing was the smoking gun." —L. Mertz Photos courtesy of Kathleen Glass. A member of Glass's research group inoculates an apple with Listeria. The fruit is then used to make caramel apples, at which time they are tested for the bacteria. This provides insight into the potential for caramel apples to cause illness among consumers. Frost control has become very important to us. In the last 9 years, we have had 5 frost events that have significantly damaged our production. We decided to do something to help mitigate this so our production would be consistent. That's where Orchard-Rite ® wind machines have come into play for us. In mid April of 2014, we reached 24 degrees outside the vineyard, yet we were able to save 100% of the fruit under the machines. Outside of the coverage area, we lost almost all of the fruit. At harvest, we picked over 6 tons per acre in the protected area and less than 1 ton per acre in any unprotected vines. The wind machines also reduced my vine damage. I put the wind machines on 10 year old vines and experienced minimal damage, but any unprotected 1 year old vines were completely decimated by the cold temperatures. In the future, when I set out a new planting, I will install Orchard-Rite ® wind machines to provide protection for the following Spring. Damaging young plants is a huge expense not only in lost production but in extra management costs to replant and retrain damaged vines. I believe that the wind machines will help our Texas wine industry grow consistent crops that our wine makers can depend on to produce superior wines and to reliably supply our markets. "The grape vines under my wind machines yielded 6 tons per acre while my unprotected areas had less than 1 ton per acre." -- Andy Timmons Lost Draw Vineyard Lubbock, TX, USA 800-392-6059 Double Topper & Hedger Center Mount Topper & Hedger Top, hedge or skirt with the extensive line of rugged GVF hedgers. Heavy tubular steel construction with high tensile strength steel and rigid tractor mount. See them all at Find a dealer and see the full GVF line at: GVF Hedgers, Toppers & Skirters Specialty Orchard & Vineyard Equipment since 1977. NEW - 60" wide compact, Tier IV fast machine designed for working in narrow rows and tight spaces. It's small - yet it has all of the features, power and speed of the larger GVF lifts. These smooth operating, rugged lifts offer excellent visibility so you can get the job done quickly and comfortably. Available in four models including the all new 60" wide compact, Tier IV model! GVF 5000, 6000 & 8000 Available in 2WD or 4WD. GVF 4000 Available in 4WD. • Fast mast cycle speeds! • Exceptional turning radius! • Extremely good visibility!

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