City Trees

January/February 2017

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Branch Sampling: EAB signs and symptoms are typically not visible until EAB has been present in an area for several years and tree health is compromised. The ash tree branch sampling method, developed by Dr. K. Ryall at the Canadian Forest Service, is an effective way to detect EAB in an area much earlier than by using visual cues. Early detection and treatment significantly increases an ash trees chance of survival. Prism Traps: Prism traps are three-sided sticky traps baited with a green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexanol, as a lure. Prism traps are a great tool for assessing EAB populations throughout a community and directing management strategies. They help determine an area's status in an EAB outbreak cycle and using prism traps throughout an entire outbreak is recommended to monitor population levels. BioForest's work with the Town of Oakville indicates that EAB populations are low during the first five years of an outbreak, but explode exponentially from years six to 11, significantly increasing the risk of tree mortality. From year 12 onward, EAB populations start to decline. Prism traps help monitor EAB population increases and declines, which aids in developing treatment strategies that effectively protect trees during all stages of an outbreak. W hen emerald ash borer (EAB) first arrived in North America, little was known about this destructive invasive pest, let alone how to manage it. What was its lifecycle? How long did an infestation last? How did it affect an ash tree? How fast did it spread? What was immediately apparent was that EAB destroyed ash trees at a rapid rate. A city's trees would look beautiful one year; full canopy and no indication of EAB attack. The next year, those same trees would have significant canopy dieback, bark cracks, epicormic shoots, and detectable D-shaped exit holes on the main stem. It was remarkable how much damage was done by the time infestation signs and symptoms were visible. In the early 2000s, EAB was practically managing cities, dictating where and how fast tree removals were happening. The high cost and volume of tree removals quickly affected municipal budgets. We have come a long way from knowing virtually nothing about EAB, to knowing enough to effectively detect, monitor and manage EAB, preserving a city's canopy. We know its lifecycle, approximately how long an infestation lasts, how it affects ash trees and how fast it spreads. In recent years, tools have been developed to help a city manage EAB, rather than allowing EAB to manage it. The following tools are critical components of any plan designed to effectively detect, monitor and manage EAB: Mortality Plots: An EAB outbreak is generally not uniform across an entire city. Mortality plots are designed to evaluate ash mortality to determine the relative progression of an EAB outbreak. Mortality plots "set the clock" and help delineate areas of High, Moderate and Low EAB populations within a municipality. This information greatly enhances operational planning for treatment or tree removal by helping managers strategically target these actions and reduce overall EAB management costs. Tree Injections: On average, treatment of EAB infested ash costs less than tree removal, disposal and replacement and is an essential component of an EAB management plan to preserve urban canopy. TreeAzin ® is primarily used by municipalities in Ontario and Quebec and is now available in the United States. TreeAzin is a botanical insecticide derived from neem tree seed extracts. TreeAzin is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) for organic tree care and is not a neonicotinoid or from the avermectin classes of insecticides. TreeAzin provides up to two years' protection against EAB and is ideal for use in urban and environmentally sensitive areas, as it does not persist in the environment. If you want to protect your ash trees and the surrounding environment, TreeAzin is the most effective biopesticide on the market. EAB WILL MANAGE YOU. IF YOU DON'T MANAGE EAB, -advertorial- Managing EAB has significantly evolved since its detection in 2002. Science and peer-reviewed research confirms that implementing the detection, monitoring and treatment tools outlined above is the most effective way to manage EAB in an urban forest. Assembling an EAB management plan initially takes time and personnel, but it will save time, money and frustration in the future. The team at BioForest are experts in implementing detection and monitoring programs to help municipalities manage EAB. Using a science-backed approach, BioForest works with clients to assess and monitor outbreaks and establish treatment plans to protect urban canopy. Contact BioForest today to discuss your current situation and how you can effectively implement an EAB management program that includes detection, monitoring and treatment tools. info@bioforest.ca · 1.888.236.7378 · www.BioForest.ca

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