Good Fruit Grower

February 15

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photo by angela gadino Syrphid fly (hover fly) adults feed on pollen. However, their larvae are effective aphid predators in orchards. Representing Leading Nurseries Since 1990 KRYMSK��1 (cv. VVA1) USPP 15,995 photo by Callie baker Rootstock for Peaches, Nectarines,Plums & Apricots Herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) lure to attract natural enemies in orchards. Ladybug pupa���the last stage before the adult ladybug emerges. ��� Dwarfing, reduces tree vigor 35-50% ��� Tolerant to wet soils ��� Ripening time is advanced ��� Increased yield and fruit size efficiency reported KRYMSK��5 Dwarfing Precocious Cherry Rootstock orchards. We found that natural enemy abundance is linked to the type of pesticide products used in an orchard as well as to application timing. Overall, programs using harsh pesticides and repeated applications tend to have lower numbers of natural enemies and are less diverse than programs using softer products and fewer applications. Natural enemies are not all the same; they have very different life cycles, prey on one or multiple pest insects, and have varying degrees of sensitivity to insecticides. Therefore, decisions about the timing and type of insecticides used should not only be based on pest biology, but also on associated natural enemies. Models Monitoring has allowed us to determine when natural enemies are present in orchards and to develop phenology models for some of the most important species. These models, the subject of the next article in this series, will allow growers to predict times when natural enemies are most vulnerable to sprays. Based on natural enemy monitoring and predictive models, a grower may choose to alter spray timings or select less harmful pesticides when natural enemies appear most active and abundant. For example, if HIPV lures capture large numbers of green lacewings, which primarily eat aphids, using a more selective product for codling moth control can help preserve the lacewing population and in turn prevent outbreaks of aphids that would require additional sprays. In 2012, six crop consultants from north central Washington and the Yakima area volunteered to use the lures to monitor green lacewings in commercial orchards. We received valuable feedback on the general ease of use, comprehension of the trap catches, and the overall value of the information gathered from using lures. We plan photo by angela gadino photo by angela gadino KRYMSK��6 Ladybug larva feeding on woolly apple aphids. A predatory true bug (Deraeocoris brevis) feeding on aphids. (cv. VSL2) USPP 15,723 (cv. LC-52) USPP 16,114 Dwarfing Precocious Cherry Rootstock KRYMSK��7 (cv. L2) USPP 16,353 Dwarfing Precocious Cherry Rootstock KRYMSK��86 to recruit more volunteers in 2013, and use grower input to improve the utility of the lures for natural enemy monitoring and pest management planning. In addition to using lures for monitoring, we are working towards the incorporation of HIPV lures into management programs as another tool to directly increase biological control and suppress pest populations in orchards. Based on recent studies, we know that some natural enemies can travel considerable distances and are much more mobile than we had previously thought. We���ve also determined that natural enemies are responding to HIPV lures within a matter of hours in some cases. Knowing this, we are currently focused on using the lures to attract and move natural enemies to areas with high pest pressure and to repopulate areas where natural enemies have been depleted by pesticide residues or other disruptions. Sole reliance on chemical insecticides for pest suppression in orchards is economically and ecologically costly, and has the potential to wipe out natural enemy populations. When beneficial insects are preserved, they do a good job at keeping pests in check and should be considered when making management decisions. By combining monitoring tools with selective pesticides, lower insecticide rates, mating disruption, and use of WSU���s Decision Aid System, growers can reduce residues on fruit, lower overall costs, and improve orchard worker safety. HIPV lures/traps are still in the experimental stage, but it is hoped that with more industry involvement, they will be available for commercial use in the near future. (cv. AP1) USPP 16,272 Compatible with Peach, Nectarine, Plum, Apricot & Almond ��� Cold hardy ��� Precocious ��� Excellent production ��� Vigorous similar to seedling ��� Excellent root anchorage ��� Tolerates many soil conditions B10�� (cv Mich 96) USPPAF ��� Cold Hardy ��� Similar to M9 Pajam��2 for vigor and yield efficiency ��� Cold Hardy STONEWALL��� Hybrid Willow Windbreak ��� Tolerates many soil conditions ��� Fast growing ��� Good fast-growing Windbreak *Information given above is from trials all around the world. California commercial growers and nurseries are required to purchase Krymsk�� from Sierra Gold Nursery, Brights Nursery, Fowler Nursery, or Duarte Nursery. Se are���rvices to gro wers ��� This is the second article in an eight-part series highlighting results of a five-year project to enhance biocontrol in orchards. GOOD FRUIT GROWER FEBRUARY 15, 2013 33

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